Optimal Adsorptive Bleaching of Palm Oil with Activated Beans Husks


  • Babatope Abimbola Olufemi Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Adedoyin T. Damola-Okesiji Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria




Beans husks, adsorption, optimization, palm oil, bleaching


The effectiveness of activated bean husks for the adsorptive bleaching of palm oil was studied in this work. Optimal bleaching parameters like temperature, time and adsorbent-oil ratio were determined for the palm oil decolouration. Various weights of 1, 1.5 and 2 g of activated beans husks were contacted with crude palm oil at 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 °C and contact times of 45, 60 and  90 minutes using 20 ml of oil sample in each case. The decolorizing effect increased linearly with temperature. Optimal adsorption conditions gave a bleaching efficiency of 98%. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin with Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were correlated, and Freundlich has the highest statistical correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.9901. Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm suggested chemisorption. The pseudo-second-order model provided the best fit for the kinetic study.  

Author Biographies

Babatope Abimbola Olufemi, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department


Senior Lecturer

Adedoyin T. Damola-Okesiji, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department


L. E. Khoo, F. Morsingh, and K. Y. Liew, “The Adsorption of β‐Carotene I. by bleaching earths”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 56(7), 1979, pp. 672 - 675. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02660071

G. Tian, Y. Kang, B. Mu, and A. Wang, “Attapulgite modified with silane coupling agent for phosphorus adsorption and deep bleaching of refined palm oil”, Adsorption Science & Technology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2014, pp. 37 - 48. https://doi.org/10.1260%2F0263-6174.32.1.37

N. B. Joy, K. Richard, and N. J. Pierre, “Adsorption of palm oil carotene and free fatty acids onto acid activated Cameroonian clays”, J Appl sci, Vol. 7, 2007, pp. 2462 - 2467.

doi: 10.3923/jas.2007.2462.2467

F. K, Hymore, “Effects of some additives on the performance of acid-activated clays in the bleaching of palm oil”, Applied clay science, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1996, pp. 379-385.


M. Rossi, M. Gianazza, C. Alamprese, and F. Stanga, “The role of bleaching clays and synthetic silica in palm oil physical refining”, Food chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 2, 2003, pp. 291-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00551-4

K. Y. Liew, S. H. Tan, F. Morsingh, and L. E. Khoo, “Adsorption of β-carotene: II. On cation exchanged bleaching clays”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, Vol. 59, No. 11, 1982, pp. 480 - 484. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02636147

N. S. Gunawan, N. Indraswati, N., Y. H. Ju, F. E. Soetaredjo, A. Ayucitra, and S. Ismadji, “Bentonites modified with anionic and cationic surfactants for bleaching of crude palm oil”, Applied clay science, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2010 pp. 462-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2009.11.037

S. C. Kheok, and E. E. Lim, “Mechanism of palm oil bleaching by montmorillonite clay activated at various acid concentrations”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol. 59, No. 3, 1982, pp. 129-131. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02662259

K. S. Low, C. K. Lee, and L. Y. Kong, “Decolorisation of crude palm oil by acid‐activated spent bleaching earth”, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental and Clean Technology, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1998, pp. 67 - 73. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199805)72:1%3C67:


S. M. Silva, K. A. Sampaio, R. Ceriani, R. Verhe, C. Stevens, W. De Greyt, and A. J. Meirelles, (2014), “Effect of type of bleaching earth on the final color of refined palm oil”, LWT-Food Science and Technology, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2014, pp. 1258-1264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.05.028

A. Okoronkwo and A. O. Jeje, “Studies on the efficiency of oyster shell and kaolin as adsorbents for bleaching of palm oil”, Knowledge review, Vol. 26, No. 20, 2012, pp. 15 - 18.

R. O. Ajemba, P. K. Igbokwe, and O. D. Onukwuli, “Optimization of color pigments removal from palm oil by activated Ukpor clay using response surface methodology”, Research Journal of Applied

Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2013, pp. 423-432.

S. O. Egbuna, C. N. Mbah, and T. O. Chime, “Determination of the optimal process conditions for the acid activation of ngwo clay in the bleaching of palm oil”, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER), Vol. 5, 2015, pp. 17-29.

S. M. Silva, K. A. Sampaio, R. Ceriani, R. Verhé, C. Stevens, W. De Greyt, and A. J. Meirelles, “Adsorption of carotenes and phosphorus from palm oil onto acid activated bleaching earth: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics”, Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 4, pp. 341 - 349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.04.026

B. J. Baptiste, N. Esther, P. Mirela, and K. Richard, “Adsorption isotherm and kinetics modeling of carotene and free fatty acids adsorption from palm oil onto montmorillonite”, IJB, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2013, pp. 15 - 24. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.3.15

F. A. Kalidikalam, P. G. D. E. T. Halili, S. P. Santoso and S. Ismadji, “Saponin Modified Clay for Crude Palm Oil Bleaching”, Widya Teknik, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2020 pp. 35 - 38.

I. A. Nnanwube, V. N. Okafor, J. I. Obibuenyi, O. D. Onukwuli and R. O. Ajemba, “Optimization of Colour Pigments Removal from Palm Oil using Activated Ogbunike Kaolinite”, Sigma, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2020, pp. 253 - 263.

V. N. Okafor, I. A. Nnanwube, J. I. Obibuenyi, O. D. Onukwuli and R. O. Ajemba, “Removal of Pigments from Palm Oil Using Activated Ibusa Kaolinite: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies”, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 157. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2019.74012

J. T. Nwabanne, C. E. Onu and O. C. Nwankwoukwu, “Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Bleaching of Palm Oil Using Activated Nando Clay”, Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 2018, pp. 1 - 13. doi: 10.9734/JERR/2018/v1i39855

W. A. Raji, R. U. Azike and F. W. Ngubi, “Optimization of Bleaching Process of Crude Palm Oil by Activated Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Peel Ash Using Response Surface Methodology”, Open Journal of Optimization, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 38 - 46. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojop.2019.81004

S. Y. Lau, S. L. Phuan, M. K. Danquah and C. Acquah, “Sustainable palm oil refining using pelletized and surface-modified oil palm boiler ash (OPBA) biosorbent”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 230, 2019, pp. 527 - 535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.390

C. Agatemor, “Some aspects of palm oil bleaching with activated plantain peel ash”, Food science and technology research, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2008, pp. 301 - 305.

T. l. Ooi and W. L. Leong, “Adsorption of palm oil monoglycerides using rice husk Ash”, Elaeis, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991, pp. 317 - 323.

K. Y. Liew, A. H. Yee and M. R. Nordin, “Adsorption of carotene from palm oil by acid‐treated rice hull ash”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol. 70, No. 5, 1993, pp. 539- 541. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02542590

M. I. Saleh and F. Adam, “Adsorption isotherms of fatty acids on rice hull ash in a model system”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol. 71, No. 12, 1994, pp. 1363 - 1366. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02541356

D. Bera, D. Lahiri and A. Nag, “Kinetic studies on bleaching of edible oil using charred sawdust as a new adsorbent”, Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2004, pp. 33 - 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.11.020

C. Acquah, L. S. Yon, Z. Tuah, N. L. Ngee and M. K. Danquah, “Synthesis and performance analysis of oil palm ash (OPA) based adsorbent as a palm oil bleaching material”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 139, 2016, pp. 1098 - 1104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.004

J. O. Ayorinde, E. Okoronkwo Afamefuna and O. Ajayi Olubode, “Adsorption Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of the Bleaching of Palm Oil using Modified Shells Powder”, Nigerian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering (NJMSE), Vol. 8, 2018, pp. 57 – 66.


A. J. Otaru, C. U. Ameh, A. S. Abdulkareem, J. O. Odigure and J. O. Okafor, “Development and Characterization of Adsorbent from Rice Husk Ash to Bleach Vegetable Oils”, IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2013, pp. 42 - 49.

E. B. Oyetola and M. Abdullahi, “The use of rice husk ash in low-cost sandcrete block production”, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, pp. 58 - 70.

J. M. Smith, “Chemical Engineering Kinetics” 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill, Ney York 1981, pp. 296-318.

O. A. Ekpete, A. C. Marcus and V. Osi, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon obtained from plantain (Musa paradisiaca) fruit stem”, Journal of Chemistry, 2017, pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8635615

M. A. Usman, O. Oribayo and A. A. Adebayo, “Bleaching of palm oil by activated local bentonite and kaolin clay from Afashio, Edo-Nigeria”, Chemical and Process Engineering Research, Vol. 10, 2013, pp. 1 - 12.


M. I. Ismail, M. H. Hamidon, M. Zulhilmie and M. Sofi, “Renewable bleaching alternatives (RBA) for palm oil refining from waste materials”, Journal Appl Environ Biol Sci, Vol. 6, No. 7S, 2016, pp. 52 - 57.

R. W. G. Hunt and M. R. Pointer, “Measuring Colour”, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2011, pp. 143-154.

ASTM D2866-11(2018), Standard Test Method for Total Ash Content of Activated Carbon, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018

B. A. Olufemi and F. Otolorin, “Comparative adsorption of crude oil using mango (Mangnifera indica) shell and mango shell activated carbon”, Environmental Engineering Research, Vol. 22, No. (4), 2017, pp. 384-392. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2017.011

A. U, Itodo and H. U. Itodo, “Sorption Energies Estimation Using Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin Adsorption Isotherms”, Life Science Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2010, pp. 68 - 76. doi:10.7537/marslsj070410.05

B. A. Olufemi and A. Nlerum, “Parametric Statistical Significance of Iron (II) Ions Adsorption by Coconut Shell in Aqueous Solutions”, NUST J. eng. sci. (NJES), Vol 11, No 1, 2018, pp. 17 – 25. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.24949%2Fnjes.v11i1.285






Engineering Sciences