A low latency quaternion-based web transmission system for augmented reality applications

Dr. Umer Ijaz, Dr. Arslan Dawood Butt, Muhammad Husnain Khalid, Muhammad Fraz Anwar, Muhammad Malik

Abstract


This work deals with the development and testing of a low latency Animation Transmission Technology (ATT) for augmented reality applications. This web-based transmission system based on AutoBahn Pyhton web server and WebSocket LibrarY (WSLAY) integrated clients has been studied to reduce packet header size and to simultaneously allow a large number of Users to interact with each other. The transmission system in the proposed system architecture allows motion sensor’s acquisition software to easily send compressed 3D quaternion-based data from transmitter to the rendering softwares at receiver side to generate real time 3D animation on an avatar. Furthermore, effects of lossy compression of quaternion data and server limitation have also been considered.

Initial simulation test results with the Python server alongside WSLAY integrated clients with virtual motion sensors have been presented in this work. It has been evaluated that the network delay (ND) has a huge improvement from more than 300 ms to less than 25 ms at 100 Hz sensor sampling rate once lossy compression of 3D quaternion data is implemented. Furthermore, the effect of motion sensor sampling frequency and broadcast server limitation on maximum number of simultaneous users/sensors is also described in this work.


Keywords


Animation Transmission Technology; Body Sensor Network; Augmented reality network; Motion Acquisition; Quaternion compression.

References


S. Qiu, Z. Wang, H. Zhao and H. Hu, "Using Distributed Wearable Sensors to Measure and Evaluate Human Lower Limb Motions," in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 939-950, April 2016.

C. L. Pulliam, D. A. Heldman, E. B. Brokaw, T. O. Mera, Z. K. Mari and M. A. Burack, "Continuous Assessment of Levodopa Response in Parkinson's Disease Using Wearable Motion Sensors," in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 159-164, Jan. 2018.

Y. C. Kan and C. K. Chen, "A Wearable Inertial Sensor Node for Body Motion Analysis," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 651-657, March 2012.

P. Jatesiktat and W. T. Ang, "Recovery of forearm occluded trajectory in Kinect using a wrist-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit," 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Seogwipo, 2017, pp. 807-812.

D. L. Arsenault and A. D. Whitehead, "Quaternion based gesture recognition using worn inertial sensors in a motion tracking system," 2014 IEEE Games Media Entertainment, Toronto, ON, 2014, pp. 1-7.

D. Arsenault and A. D. Whitehead, "Gesture recognition using Markov Systems and wearable wireless inertial sensors," in IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 429-437, November 2015.

X. Ge, L. Pan, Q. Li, G. Mao and S. Tu, "Multipath Cooperative Communications Networks for Augmented and Virtual Reality Transmission," in IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2345-2358, Oct. 2017.

E. Bastug, M. Bennis, M. Medard and M. Debbah, "Toward Interconnected Virtual Reality: Opportunities, Challenges, and Enablers," in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 110-117, 2017.

Amit L. Ahire, Alun Evans, and Josep Blat, “Animation on the web: a survey”. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D '15). ACM, pp. 249-257, 2015.

I. Fette and A. Melnikov, “The websocket protocol,” RFC Editor, RFC6455, December 2011.

Autobahn python. [Online]. Available: http://autobahn.ws/python

K. D. Wise, “Integrated microelectromechanical systems: A perspective on mems in the 90s,” in [1991] Proceedings. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Jan 1991, pp. 33–38.

F. Leens, “An introduction to I2C and SPI protocols,” IEEE Instrumentation Measurement Magazine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8–13, February 2009.

InvenSense. ”MPU-9250 Nine-Axis (Gyro + Accelerometer + Compass) MEMS MotionTrackingTM Device”. [Online]. Available: https://www.invensense.com/products/motion-tracking/9-axis/mpu-9250/

STMicroelectronics. ”iNEMO inertial module: 3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer”. [Online]. Available: http://www.st.com/en/mems-and-sensors/lsm9ds1.html

J. Bartholomeycz, S. Zimmermann, U. Breng, W. Gutmann, M. Hafen, E. Handrich et al., “Mems based inertial measurement unit for attitude and heading reference systems,” in 2nd European Conference Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems - MOMS, MOEMS, ICS and Electronic Components, April 2008, pp. 1–8.

R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach et al., “Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1,” United States, 1999.

”Orbisnap”. [Online]. Available: http://www.orbisnap.com

”Cortona 3D Viewers”. [Online]. Available: http://www.cortona3d.com/cortona3d-viewers

J. Behr, P. Eschler, Y. Jung, and M. Zollner, “X3DOM: A DOM- ¨based HTML5/X3D Integration Model,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, ser. Web3D ’09. ACM, 2009, pp. 127–135.

”Bit Management”. [Online]. Available: http://www.bitmanagement.com/

”Flux 3D Player”. [Online]. Available: http://fluxplayer.software.informer.com/

”Instant Reality”. [Online]. Available: http://www.instantreality.org

”View 3D Scene”. [Online]. Available: http://castleengine.sourceforge.net/view3dscene.php

Westphal, Cédric. “Challenges in Networking to Support Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality.” (2016).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24949%2Fnjes.v11i2.405

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN (Print): 2070-9900   ISSN (Online): 2411-6319