Critical Events of Fog Attenuation Using Visibility Data in Lahore, Pakistan.


  • Sultan Mahmood Yasir University of Gujrat
  • Muhammad Salman Effat University, Jeddah, KSA
  • Muhammad Shoaib Saleem University of Management and Technology, Sialkot



Free space Optical (FSO) link, Optical wireless communication (OWC) Fog, Visibility, Optical attenuation, Line of Sight (LOS), Data Rate(DR), Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR), Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation(LASER), Bit error rate(BER) Liqui


Free-space optics (FSO) communication system is mature, unique and promising technology which is used in various countries to meet high data rate demand and last mile connectivity. FSO link has a capacity to be utilized as a primary communication links by replacing RF communication systems because of its advantages of unregulated bandwidth, broader spectrum of frequency at low power consumption. Now a days researchers has great interest in this technology because of several features and benefits of larger bandwidth, less power consumption, low installations cost, simple to install, no congestion in spectrum, secure and reliable communication without issues of right of way. In free space optical communication, environment layer is used for signal transmission which can be effected from severe weather conditions like smog, dust, smoke, rain and fog etc. In all these severe weather environments, winter fog is one of the main problem because of it offers high optical attenuation on communication link. In this investigation the entire winter season has been observed. There are four fog events which attenuate the optical signal most. Optical attenuation is estimated using three famous fog prediction models like Al Naboulsi, Kim and at wavelengths of 850nm, 1350nm, and 1550 nm. 

Author Biographies

Sultan Mahmood Yasir, University of Gujrat

PhD Student

Muhammad Salman, Effat University, Jeddah, KSA

lecturer  in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem, University of Management and Technology, Sialkot

lecturer Electrical Engineering Deparment


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