GIS based Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of Lahore a Metropolitan using Modified DRASTIC Model


  • Syed Umair Shahid Centre for Integrated Mountain Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Javed Iqbal Institute of Geographical Information Systems, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad
  • Maryam Khalil Centre for Integrated Mountain Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore



The metropolitans of the developing countries are experiencing the hazard of low quality drinking water. Lahore, the heart of Pakistan, has over 12 million population and is going to face the shortage of clean drinking water. The study was designed to create a groundwater vulnerability map of Lahore using modified DRASTIC model. The water table, land use/cover, hydraulic conductivity, vadose zone, soil and aquifer media layers of Lahore aquifer were analyzed using ‘geostatistical analyst’ and ‘spatial analyst’ extensions of ArcGIS software to compute the groundwater vulnerability. The Vulnerability index of modified DRASTIC model ranged from 64 – 144. The spatial variability of modified DRASTIC index were divided into 4 categories, namely, Low, Moderate, High and Very High groundwater vulnerable zones. The modified DRASTIC model revealed that 51.38% areas have low vulnerability, 36.77% areas have moderate vulnerability, 9.48% areas have high vulnerability and 2.37% areas have very high vulnerability to groundwater pollution. The ‘high’ and ‘very high’ vulnerability classes were found in the western parts of Lahore. The results of modified DRASTIC model were validated using the groundwater contamination data of arsenic in the study area. The groundwater arsenic concentrations map also showed higher values in the northwestern parts while in the eastern parts of the study area, the arsenic concentrations had a decreasing trend. In Ravi Town, the arsenic concentrations were positively correlated with modified DRASTIC vulnerability index and inversely correlated with water table depth (p < 0.01). It is recommended that the arsenic removal plants should be installed at all the tubewells with higher arsenic levels (arsenic concentration > 50 ppb) to provide safe drinking water to the citizens of Lahore. It is recommended that the modified DRASTIC model based on geospatial techniques can be applied on other metropolitans of the world for taking preventive measures against massive water pollution.






Engineering Sciences