Water quality assessment of Raw and Chlorinated drinking water of a Residential University


  • Huda Kamal National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Imran Hashmi National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.




Drinking water, Raw water, Chlorinated water, Physicochemical quality, Bacteriological quality.


Safety of water is essential for life on earth. Drinking contaminated water can give rise to many health issues. In order to highlight major causes of contamination in water, this study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of raw and chlorinated water. Raw and chlorinated water samples were obtained from three locations (zones) of a residential university (National University of Sciences and Technology, NUST). Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed (pH, Electrical conductivity, Turbidity, Dissolved oxygen, Hardness, Alkalinity, Total suspended solids, Total dissolved solids, Total organic carbon and Chlorine (free & total)). Bacteriological analysis was performed through MPN technique. The results showed that all the physicochemical parameters were found within the permissible limits set by WHO and PSDWQ for raw and chlorinated water, except TSS and Chlorine (free & total). The TSS of raw and chlorinated water ranged from 3.3-14.3mg/L and 8.7-12.7mg/L which were greater than the permissible limits. The free and total chlorine for both raw and chlorinated water ranged from 0.04-0.09mg/L and 0.06-0.07mg/L respectively which were far below the recommended limit required for water disinfection. The MPN index for raw and chlorinated water ranged from 23 to >23MPN/100ml and 16 to >23MPN/100ml which exceed the permissible limits. The results conclude that the water whether raw or chlorinated is not fit for drinking purposes. Proper dosages of chlorine and filtration techniques are required to make the water fit for consumption.

Author Biographies

Huda Kamal, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Department: Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE).

Rank: MS-Researcher.

Imran Hashmi, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

National University of Sciences and Technology. (NUST)

Department: Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE).

Rank; Associate Dean 


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Engineering Sciences