Water quality assessment of Raw and Chlorinated drinking water of a Residential University


  • Huda Kamal Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Sector H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Imran Hashmi Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Sector H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan




Drinking water, Raw water, Chlorinated water, Physicochemical quality, Bacteriological quality.


 The safety of water is essential for life on earth. Drinking contaminated water can give rise to many health issues. To
highlight the major causes of contamination in water, this study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and
bacteriological quality of raw and chlorinated water. Raw and chlorinated water samples were obtained from three locations (zones) of a residential university (National University of Sciences and Technology, NUST). Ten physicochemical
parameters were analyzed (pH, Electrical conductivity, Turbidity, Dissolved oxygen, Hardness, Alkalinity, Total suspended
solids, Total dissolved solids, Total organic carbon, and Chlorine (free & total)). Bacteriological analysis was performed
through the MPN technique. The results showed that all the physicochemical parameters were found within the permissible limits set by WHO and PSDWQ for raw and chlorinated water, except TSS and Chlorine (free & total). The TSS of raw and chlorinated water ranged from 3.3-14.3mg/L and 8.7-12.7mg/L, greater than the permissible limits. The free Chlorine for both raw and chlorinated water ranged from 0.04-0.09mg/L and 0.06-0.07mg/L and total Chlorine for both raw and chlorinated water in the range 0.10-0.09mg/L and 0.22-0.24mg/L, respectively, which were far below the recommended limit required for water disinfection. The MPN index for raw and chlorinated water ranged from 23 to >23MPN/100ml and 16 to >23MPN/100ml, exceeding the permissible limits. The results concluded that the water, whether raw or chlorinated, was not fit for drinking purposes. Proper dosages of Chlorine and filtration techniques are required to make the water fit for consumption.


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Engineering Sciences