Condition Monitoring of Outdoor High Voltage Insulators, Online and Offline Techniques: A review


  • Haseeb Faisal Department of Electrical Engineering, HITEC University Taxila, Pakistan
  • Arshad Ali University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Muhammad Riaz Department of Electrical Engineering, Wah Engineering College University of Wah, Pakistan



Condition monitoring, outdoor insulators, flashover voltage, surface leakage current, transmission


 Outdoor insulator plays a vital role in high voltage transmission and distribution system. The performance and properties of outdoor insulator may severely affect due to various types of pollutants. The failure of insulation in high voltage system results in loss of supply and a huge loss of electrical energy to distribution utilities. In order to reduce power losses and provide a reliable power transmission, selection and design of insulators is very important. To monitor the condition and performance of outdoor insulator in contaminated conditions an appropriate diagnostic technique is required. In this paper various online and offline techniques for conditioning monitoring of outdoor insulators are reviewed under different contaminated conditions. To maintain the healthy environment, the condition monitoring of power line insulators is an important requirement. There are number of techniques that have been introduced to fulfil this requirement. Each technique used at different contaminated condition have their own pros and cons. The findings indicate that the most important effect on the surface of the insulators based on the contamination on the surface leakage current and the flashover voltage. This paper will help in the selection and design of condition monitoring techniques for high voltage outdoor insulator.

Author Biography

Muhammad Riaz, Department of Electrical Engineering, Wah Engineering College University of Wah, Pakistan

MS student, Lab Engineer


Kaverina R., Kogan F.& Yakovlev L. (2007). Improving reliability of overhead lines 35-750 kv. A complex of works and proposals. Colourful magazine «The News of Electrical Engineering» No. 5 (47).

Yakovlev, L.V., Kaverina, R.S. & Dubinich L.A. (2008). Complex of works and proposals for increasing reliability of overhead lines at the stage of design and operation. Power transmission lines: design, construction, operating experience and scientific and technical progress., ISBN 978-5-93889-144-9, Novosibirsk, p. 28-50.

Kashevarov, S.G. (2015). Damages of power transmission lines and review of new technical and organizational solutions for their limitation. Current state and prospects for the development of technical sciences: Collection of articles of the International Scientific and Practical Conference (May 23, 2015. Ufa), ISBN: 978-5-906781-48-2, Ufa: RIO MZ Omega Sainz, p. 58-63.

Kogan, F.L. (2008). Complex of works and proposals for increasing reliability of overhead lines at the stage of their design / F. L Kogan, R.S. Kaverina // Branch "Firm ORGRES". Materials of the conference of the CIS Electric Power Council.

Merkhalev, S.D. & Solomonik, E.A. (1983). Selection and operation of insulation in areas with the contaminated atmosphere. L.: Energoatomizdat, 120 p.

Thionc, L. (1994). Dielectric strength of external insulation systems under live working. Proc. 35th CIGRE Session, Paris, p. 33-306.

Manone, G. et al. (1994). Investigation on the dielectric strength of damaged insulation strings of HV overhead lines during repair operations by live working. Proc. 35th CIGRE Session. Paris, p. 33-305.

Hutzler, B. (1988). Strength of external insulation during live line maintenance and repair work with special reference to transient overvoltage // Proc. 32th SIGRE Session, Paris, p. 33-307.

S. Chandrasekar, C. Kalaivanan, A. Cavallini, and G. Montanari, “Investigations on leakage current and phase angle characteristics of porcelain and polymeric insulator under contaminated conditions,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 574–583, 2009.

G. Zhicheng, M. Yingke, W. Liming, L. Ruihai, W. Hua, and M. Yi, “Leakage Current and Discharge Phenomenon of Outdoor Insulators,” vol. 1, no. 1, 2009.

M. Iaeng, “Properties of Leakage Current on 20 kV Ceramic Insulators and Computer Simulation Based on Electrical Equivalent Circuit,” vol. II, 2010.

C.Yao, J.Wang, Li.C., Y. Mi., C. Sun, “The syntactical pattern recognition for the leakage current of transmission-line insulators”,IEEE Transactions Power Delivery, Vol.26,No. 4, pp. 2244–2250; 2011

N. s. R. S. Nauflarizqa ramadha meisa putra*, "The study on leakage current waveform characteristics and computer simulation of ceramic insulator under artificial tropical condition," in 12th international IEEE conference on the properties and applications of dielectric materials, Xian- China, 2018.

P. E. Charles Jean, "High voltgae insulator testing based on electric field method," in 12th International Conference on Live maintenance, 2017.

K. K. W. W. G. S. J. L. a. R. S. I.M.A.M. Karunarathna, "Condition Monitoring System for Outdoor Insulators," in International Conference on Electrical Engineering (EECON), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2018.

P. N. J. F. N. U. K. Friedrich Kiessling, Overhead Power Lines Planning, Design, Construction, Springer.

M. D. J. a. J. S. P. C. J. Bennoch, "System for On-line monitoring of pollution levels on solid insulators," in IEEE International Symposium on electrical insulation, Boston, 2002.

J. R. C.N. Richards, "Development of a remote insulator contamination monitoring system," IEEE Transactions on Power delivery , vol. 12, 1997.

H. a. R. s. Dini Fauziah, "Performances of long term coastal field aged silicone- coated ceramic insulators under clean and salt fog conditions," in International conference on high voltage engineering and power systems, bali, 2017.

Y. m. X. w. e. a. Fuzeng zhang, "Experimental Investigation on flashover performance of glass insulator for DC transmission lines at high altitudes," in Annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena, 2007.

I. k. J. N. J. k. P. h. Paul Taklaja, "Electric field distribution in glass and porcelain pin insulators," in IEEE 15th International conference on environment and electrical engineering, 2015.

M. a. &. M. s. Muhammad amin*, "Composite insulators and their aging: An overview," Springer Science in china series E: Technological Sciences, vol. 50, p. 17, 2007.

M. G. Danikass, "Polymer outdoor insulators," Acta Electrotechnica Napocensis, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 3-10, 1999.

A. o. m. m. t. Mohamed bouhaouche, "Composite insulators in a 400kV AC line in algeria for improving electric field distribution," in 3rd CISTEM , Algiers, 2018.

C. s. W. s. Q. y. a. j. h. Jingyan li, "Contamiantion level prediction of insulators based on the characteristics of leakage current," IEEE Transaction on Power delivery , vol. 25, no. 1, 2010.

N. .. S. L. L. Z. L. a. H. P. C.M Pei, "Online monitoring of insulator contamination causing flashover based on acoustic emission," in International conference on electric utility deregulation and restructuring and power technologies, Nanjing, 2008.

R. S. a. R. Gorur, "Role of non- soluble contaminants on the flashover voltage of porcelain insulators," IEEE Transaction on dielectrics and Electric Insulations, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 113-118, 1996.

S. A. a. M. A. Muhammad Amin, "Monitoring of leakage current for composite insulators and electrical devices," Review on Advance Materials Science, vol. 21, pp. 75-89, 2009.

R. G. S. D. S. D. Suhas Deb, "Condition Monitoring of 11kV Porcelain Pin," Kolkata, India, 2017

Farhadinejad, Zeinab, et al. "Effects of UVC radiation on thermal, electrical and morphological behavior of silicone rubber insulators." IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 19.5 (2012): 1740-1749.

Ahmadi-Joneidi, Iman, et al. "Aging evaluation of silicone rubber insulators using leakage current and flashover voltage analysis." IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 20.1 (2013): 212-220.

J. W. 1. X. J. 1. L. Y. 1. Yanpeng Hao 1, "Icing Condition Assessment of In-Service Glass Insulators Based on Graphical Shed Spacing and Graphical Shed Overhang," Energies, 2018.

B. K. C. D. K. M. M. Jaya Bharata Reddy, "A DOST Based Approach for the Condition Monitoring," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 2, pp. 585-598, 2011.

K. C. B. D. K. M. M. Jaya Bharata Reddy, "Condition Monitoring of 11 kV Distribution System," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 20, 2013.

Y. L. H. J. L. Y. J. Y. B. X. Du, "Recurrent Plot Analysis of Leakage Current," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 16, 2009.

S. M. K. A.-A. a. A. A.-S. Ayman El-Hag, "An Intelligent System for Acoustic Inspection of Outdoor Insulators," 2017.

M. A. A. H. A S Krzma, "Comparative Performance of 11kV Silicone Rubber Insulators using Artificial Pollution Tests," in IEEE, 2015.

S. G. M. M. A. J. R. A. n. A. w. a. M. D. J. Yan Jiang, "High voltage insulator contamination level online monitoring with conventional and novel methods," in Electrcical Insulation Conference (EIC), Montreal, 2016.

L. W. YingHong yang, "The online detection of faulty insulator using Fast Fourier Transformation," in International conference on system and informatics (ICSAI), 2014.

Tutevich, V.N. (1985). Telemechanics: tutorial for university students of spec. "Automation and telemechanics." 2nd ed., rev. and add. M.: Higher School, 423 p.

Penin, P.I. (1976). Transmission systems for digital information. M.: Sov. Radio, 368 p.

Kuzmin, I.V. & Kedrus, V.A. (1986). Fundamentals of information theory and coding. 2nd ed., rev. and add. К.: Vishcha shkola, 238 p.

Shuvalov, V.P., et al. (1990). Transmission of discrete messages: Textbook for higher schools, . ISBN: 5-256-00852-8, M.: Radio and Communication, 464 p.

J. W. K. L. L. W. K. Liang, "Research of acoustic vibration Technique in online defects detection in porcelain post insulator," in IEEE International magnetics conference (INTERMAG), Beijing, 2015.

H. D. G. z. J. w. a. F. Y. Wei Cai, "Online measurement of Equivalent Salt Deposit Density by using optical technology," IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation , vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 409-413, 2013.

U. S. S. M. B. A. F. Irene Y.H. Gu, "Online detection of snow coverage and swing angles of electrical insulators on power transmission lines using videos," in IEEE International conference on image processing (ICIP), 2009.

M. J. J. P. C.J Bennoch, "System for online monitoring of pollution levels on solid insulators," in IEEE Internation symposium on Electrical Insulation, Boston, 2002.

A. A. N. R. N. N. a. A. A. N.Q. Zainal Abidin, "Online surface condition monitoring system using time frequency analysis technique on high voltage insulators," in IEEE International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), Langkawi, 2013.

V. M. L. Z. G. M. N. A. S. Shihab, "On line pollution leakage current monitoring system," in International conference on properties and applications of dielectric materials (ICPADM), Brisbane, 1994.

H. S. Will Lannes, "Pollution severity performance chart; key to just- in- time insulator maintenance," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 12, no. 4, 1997.

B. c. S. c. Riddhi ghosh, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 1568-1576, 2017.

T. V. F. M. G. G. e. a. Edson G. da Costa, "Characterization of Polymeric insulators uisng thermal and UV imaging under laboratory conditions," vol. 16, no. 4, 2009.

C. X. S. W. X. S. a. Q. J. Y. J. Y. Li, "Stage pre-warning based on leakage current characteristics before contamination flashover based on leakage current characteristics before contamination flashover," IET Gener., Transm., Distrib., vol. 3, pp. 605-615, 2009.

Z. J. Z. G. a. L. L. Huafeng Su, "Mechanism of Contaminant Accumulation and Flashover of Insulator in Heavily Polluted Coastal Area," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 17, pp. 1635-1641, 2010.

R. H. a. G. M. Isaias Ramirez, "Measurement of Leakage Current for Monitoring the Performance of Outdoor Insulators in Polluted Environments," IEEE, vol. 28, July-August 2012.

Muniraj, Iniya Kumar, et al. "Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae." water research 47.10 (2013): 3477-3483.

Narayanan, V. Jayaprakash, et al. "Prediction of Flashover and Pollution Severity of High Voltage Transmission Line Insulators Using Wavelet Transform and Fuzzy C-Means Approach." Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology 9.5 (2014): 1677-1685.

D. M. S. F. V. B. d. N. J. L. d. S. N. R. C. Marcelo Martins Werneck1, "Detection and Monitoring of Leakage Currents in Distribution Line Insulators," in IEEE, Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014.

B. Phung, "Computer-based Partial Discharge Detection and Characterisation, in School of Electrical Engineering," New South Wales: Sydney., 1997.

I. Giriantari, "CONDITION MONITORING OF COMPOSITE INSULATORS USING PARTIAL," in IEEE, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran Bali- Indonesia, 2006.

V. S. R. V. Padma, "Analysis of Insulation Degradation in Insulators using Partial Discharge Analysis," in IEEE, TamilNadu, India, 2011.






Engineering Sciences