Preparation of Metallurgical Grade Silicon by using Magnesium as reducing agent from Quartz deposits of Pakistan
The quartz stone available in different parts of Pakistan has never been studied before as precious mineral resource for acquiring Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MGS). During this research, quartz reserves of around 600 million metric ton (MMT) in different parts of Pakistan have been studied first and then in order to proceed mines of Jhangshahi, Sindh were selected where more than 150 MMT of proven quartz reserves are available. In this research samples of quartz stone from Jhangshahi, Sindh mines acquired for detail elemental analysis which proved presence of more than 95% Silicon Dioxide. This elemental analysis further strengthens the concept of MGS extraction from locally available quartz. During this research work, a comparatively less used technique of using magnesium element as reductant for MGS extraction is developed indigenously by using magnesium as reducing agent was developed. In order to validate the results of experiment, eight different experiments were performed around 950OC. After performing eight all the eight experiments, all extracted products were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) techniques. This technique validated the presence of around 95% of MGS in all the extracted products.
M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45), Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications”, Vol. 23 No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-9.
N.D. Kaushika, A. K. Rai, “An investigation of mismatch losses in solar photovoltaic cell networks”, Energy Journal, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2007, pp. 755-759.
“New Brunswick mineral occurrence database”, URL “http://dnre-mrne.gnb.ca/MineralOccurrence/”, Accessed on Jul 2015.
B.G. Gribov, K.V. Zinov'ev, “Preparation of high purity silicon for solar cells”, Inorganic materials, Vol. 39, No. 7, 2003, pp. 653-662.
L.P. Hunt, V.D. Dosaj, J.R. McCormick, L.D. Crossman, “Purification of Metallurgical grade Silicon to Solar grade Quality”, International Symposium on Solar Energy Vol. 1, 1976, pp. 200-215.
J.M. Juneja, T.K. Mukherjee, “A study of the purification of metallurgical grade silicon”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 16 No. 1, 1986, pp. 69-75.
Z. Jing, L. Tingju, M. Xianodong, Dawie, L., Dehua, L., “Optimization of the acid leaching process by using an ultrasonic field for metallurgical grade silicon:, Journal of Semiconductors, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2009, pp. 053002-6.
T.L. Chu, S.S. Chu, “Partial purification of metallurgical silicon by acid extraction”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, Vol. 130, No. 2, 1993, pp. 455-457.
N. Liu, K. Huo, M. T. McDowell, J. Zhao, & Y. Cui, “Rice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high performance Li-ion battery anodes”, Scientific Reports 3, doi:10.1038/srep 01919, 2013.
Z. Favors, W. Wang, H. H. Bay, Z. Mutlu, K. Ahmed, C. Liu, M. Ozkan, C. S. Ozkan, “Scalable Synthesis of Nano-Silicon from Beach Sand for Long Cycle Life Li-ion Batteries”, Scientific reports, Vol. 4, 2014, pp. 5623.
W. Luo, X. Wang, C. Meyers, N. Wannenmacher, W. Sirisaksoontorn, M. M. Lerner, X. Ji, “Efficient Fabrication of Nano porous Si and Si/Ge Enabled by a Heat Scavenger in Magnesiothermic Reactions”, Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, 2013, pp. 2222.
I. Wazamtu, N. A. Sani, “Extraction and quantification of silicon from silica sand obtained from Zauma River, Zamfara state, Nigeria”, European scientific journal, Vol. 9, 2013, pp. 160-168.
P. M. Cox, R.A. Betts, C.D. Jones, S.A. Spall, I.J. Totterdel, “Acceleration of global warming due to carbon cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate mode”, Letters to Nature, Vol. 408, 2000, pp. 184-187.
S. Solomona, G. K. Plattnerb, R. Knuttic, P. Friedlingstein, “Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions”, Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States of America, Vol. 106, 2009, pp.1704-1709.
Zaib Ullah Khan, Nasim A. Khan, J. Askari, I. Amin, "Design and Development of Low Scale, High Temperature, Hybrid Furnace for the Extraction of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Raw Mineral Quartz", Life Science Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2013, pp.375-383.
Technical Analysis Report by Dr. M. Yaqoob, Chief Scientific Officer (C.S.O.), “XRD and XRF Studies / Analysis Report of Mineral Quartz Sample of Jhangshahi, Sindh, Pakistan”, Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratory, Karachi Complex, Karachi, Pakistan, 2011.
- There are currently no refbacks.
ISSN (Print): 2070-9900 ISSN (Online): 2411-6319