Set point tracking of Ball and Beam System Using Genetic Algorithm based PI-PD Controller

Tayyab Ali, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Amir


The ball and beam system is one of the commonly used benchmark control apparatus for evaluating numerous different real systems and control strategies. It is an inherently nonlinear and open-loop unstable system. In this paper, we have suggested an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) based Proportional Integral-Proportional Derivative (PI-PD) controller for the set point tracking of this well-known ball and beam system. A linearized model of the ball and beam system is deduced and PI-PID control methodology is employed. The popular EA technique such as Genetic algorithm (GA) is used for tuning of the controller. The optimized values of the controller parameters are achieved by solving a fitness function using GA. The transient performance of the proposed GA based PI-PD controller (GA-PI-PD) is evaluated by carrying set point tracking analysis of the ball and beam system through MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Furthermore, the performance of GA-PI-PD controller is investigated using four different performance indices such as Integral of squared value of error (ISE), Integral of time multiplied by squared value of error (ITSE), Integral of absolute value of error (IAE) and Integral of time multiplied by absolute value of error (ITAE). The comparison of transient performance including rising time, settling time and % overshoot is made with SIMC-PID and H-infinity controllers. The comparison reveals that GA-PI-PD controller yielded transient response with small % overshoot and settling time. The superior performance of the GA-PI-PD controller has witnessed that it is highly effective for maintaining good stability and the setpoint tracking of ball and beam system with fast settling time and less overshoot than SIMC-PID and H-infinity controllers.


Stability control, Ball and Beam system, Set point tracking, Evolutionary Algorithms, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integral-Proportional Derivative (PI-PD) controller, SIMC based PID controller, H-infinity controller, Open loop unstable systems


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