A comprehensive assessment of spatial interpolation methods for the groundwater quality evaluation of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
method may be significantly different from the map produced using another model of the same spatial interpolation method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of different spatial interpolation methods to depict
the water quality of Lahore correctly. The water samples (n = 73) were collected from tube wells and tested for physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, hardness, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, calcium, and chlorides). The
data exploration was performed using SPSS software. The inter-comparison of different powers of inverse distance weighting (IDW) and different functions of radial basis functions (RBF) was completed using geostatistical analyst
extension in ArcGIS 10.3. Moreover, these deterministic interpolation methods (IDW and RBF) were compared with geostatistical interpolation methods (ordinary kriging and ordinary co-kriging) based on cross-validation statistics; root means square error (RMSE). The analysis showed that ordinary co-kriging performed much better than ordinary kriging, RBF, and IDW, for water quality assessment of Lahore. Hence, ordinary co-kriging with appropriate auxiliary
variable and the best-fitted semi-variogram model was used to generate the spatial distribution map for each water quality parameter. The water quality index (WQI) was computed using the tested physicochemical parameters, and the results showed that 98% of the tube wells were providing ‘excellent’ to ‘good’ water quality in Lahore city. However, there were few areas of City and Anarkali subdivisions where it indicated poor to very poor water quality. The
procedure used in this study is valuable for the water management authorities to better understand and monitor the groundwater quality.
A. Alamgir, et al., “Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh Province, Pakistan”, Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment, vol. 188:78, 2016, pp.1-13.
R. Shabbir and S.S. Ahmad, “Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess groundwater quality in Rawalpindi and
Islamabad”, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 40, 2015, pp. 2033-2047.
C. R. Ramakrishnaiah, C. Sadashivaiah and G. Ranganna, “Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka
State, India”, E-Journal of Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 2, 2009, pp. 523-530.
A. Mahmood, et al., “Application of multivariate statistical techniques for the characterization of groundwater quality of Lahore, Gujranwala and
Sialkot (Pakistan)”, Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 1, 2011, pp.102-112.
A. D. Piazza, et al., “Comparative analysis of spatial interpolation methods in the Mediterranean Area: Application to temperature in Sicily”, Water, vol. 7, 2015, pp. 1866-1888.
K. Johnston, et al., “Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst”, ESRI, Redlands, California, 2003.
P. Q. Giang, et al., “Investigating and mapping spatial patterns of arsenic contamination in groundwater using regression analysis and spline interpolation technique”, Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA, vol. 62, no. 6, 2013, pp.385-394.
S.U. Shahid and J. Iqbal “Groundwater quality assessment using averaged water quality index: a case study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan”, Proceedings of World Multidisciplinary Earth Sciences Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5-9, 2016.
C. Childs, “Interpolating surfaces in ArcGIS spatial analyst”,
https://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0704/files/int erpolating.pdf , ArcUser July-September, 2004.
M. Aminu, et al., “A GIS-based water quality model for sustainable tourism planning of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia”,
Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 73, 2015, pp. 6525-6537.
K. Rina, et al., “Characterization and evaluation of processes governing the groundwater quality in parts of the Sabarmati Basin, Gujarat using hydrochemistry integrated with GIS”, Hydrological Processes, vol. 26, 2012, pp. 1538-1551.
A. Kamińska and A. Grzywna, “Comparison of deterministic interpolation methods for the estimation of groundwater level”, Journal of
Ecological Engineering, vol. 15, no. 4, 2014, pp.55–60.
I. Audu and A. Usman, “An application of geostatistics to analysis of water quality parameters in rivers and streams in Niger State, Nigeria”, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, vol.4, no. 5, 2015, pp. 373-388.
C. Yan, et al., “Assessment of water quality and identification of polluted risky regions based on field observations & GIS in the Honghe River watershed, China”, PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, 2015, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119130.
Z. Han, R. Zimmermann and S. Görtz, “A new cokriging method for variable-fidelity surrogate modeling of aerodynamic data”, Proceedings of
th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, January4-7, 2010.
M. Delbari, et al., “Investigating spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters using geostatistics and GIS”, International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, vol. 4, no. 12, 2013, pp. 3623-3632.
A. Hooshmand, et al., “Application of kriging and cokriging in spatial estimation of groundwater quality parameters”, African Journal of
Agricultural Research, vol. 6, no. 14, 2011, pp.3402-3408.
H. Arslan, and N. A. Turan, “Estimation of spatial distribution of heavy metals in groundwater using interpolation methods and multivariate statistical techniques; its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey”, Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment, vol. 187:516, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s10661-015-4725-x.
S.U. Shahid, J. Iqbal and G. Hasnain, “Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case
study of Rawal Town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 186, no. 11, 2014, pp. 7525-7537.
M. Samin, et al., “Spatial estimation of groundwater quality parameters based on water salinity data using kriging and cokriging methods”, Proceedings of International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 25-26, 2012.
N. Mubarak, et al., “Spatial distribution of sulfate concentration in groundwater of South-Punjab, Pakistan”, Water Quality, Exposure and Health, vol. 7, 2015, pp. 503-513.
H. Khosravi, et al., “Investigation of spatial structure of groundwater quality using geostatistical approach in Mehran Plain, Iran”, Pollution, vol. 2, no. 1, 2016, pp. 57-65.
R. Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, M. Zareiyan-Jahromi, and F. Asadzadeh, “Mapping the spatial variability of groundwater quality in Urmia (Iran):
comparison of different interpolation methods”, Journal of International Environmental Application & Science, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013, pp. 359-368.
A. Khashei-Siuki, and M. Sarbazi, “Evaluation of ANFIS, ANN, and geostatistical models to spatial distribution of groundwater quality (Case study:Mashhad plain in Iran)”, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 8, 2015, pp. 903-912.
Z. Javed, et al., “Spatial distribution of arsenic concentration in drinking water using kriging techniques”, Science International (Lahore), vol. 27, no. 2, 2015, pp. 1089-1095.
M. Jalali, S. Karami and A. F. Marj, “Geostatistical evaluation of spatial variation related to groundwater quality database: Case study for Arak
Plain Aquifer, Iran”, Environmental Modeling & Assessment, 2016, DOI 10.1007/s10666-016-9506-6.
M. Yang, “Benchmarking rainfall interpolation over the Netherlands”, M.S. Thesis, University of Twente. Enschede, Netherlands, 2015.
S. S. Asadi, P. Vuppala and M. A. Reddy, “Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (zone-V), India”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 4, no. 1, 2007, pp. 45-52.
X. Yao, et al., “Comparison of four spatial interpolation methods for estimating soil moisture in a complex terrain catchment”, PLoS ONE, vol.
, no.1, 2013,
World Health Organization. “Guidelines for drinking-water quality”, 4th ed. Geneva: WHO, 2011.
N. Munir, et al., “Physio-Chemical differences between Aab-E-ZamZam and mineral water effect of water intake on blood pressure”, American Eurasian Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, 2015, pp. 83-87.
R. Chatterjee, G. Tarafder and S. Paul, “Groundwater quality assessment of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 69, 2010, pp. 137-141.
- There are currently no refbacks.
ISSN (Print): 2070-9900 ISSN (Online): 2411-6319